Globalization is a process of unification and integration that extends to all spheres of life (economic, political, social, cultural, religious). Thanks to this phenomenon, the mutual influence of all these areas is increasing not only within the framework of one state, but also on a global scale. For the first time the term "globalization" in the modern sense was used by Karl Marx in the late 1850s. However, this process really began only from the moment of transition from the industrial type of society to the information one. First of all, this is of course connected with the development of technologies and means of communication. The advent of television and the Internet has significantly reduced the distance between different countries, providing them with a single platform for communication. The rapprochement of states distant from each other led to the creation of a single trade space, organized taking into account the international division of labor. Thus, the market economy has received global status. In many ways, the formation of the world economy was facilitated by the activities of international transnational corporations. Branches and enterprises of these companies are located around the world, and their products are still in demand in most countries. Such corporations include such well-known companies as General Motors, Coca-Cola, Xerox, Samsung, etc. TNCs include not only companies engaged in the production of anything, but also multinational banks, various funds and insurance organizations.
Globalization as a social phenomenon originated in ancient times. Certain features of this process can be found in antiquity. An example here is the Roman Empire with its hegemony over the Mediterranean. As a result of the subordination of the inhabitants of this region, a gradual rapprochement of cultures took place and the division of labor began to take place. At the beginning of the 21st century, the theory of global society gained great popularity. The idea that every person is a citizen of the united people of the Earth was expressed in ancient times by the philosopher and thinker Diogenes. According to this concept, the whole world is a single space, divided into a large number of local societies, that is, in other words, countries. From this point of view, the process of globalization is presented as a natural transformation of the economy, a natural stage in its development. The development of the modern world takes place in the conditions of dense cultural rapprochement of various countries. Mutual influence occurs at all levels of the organization of society, in all spheres of life. The penetration of the cultural traditions of different states into each other contributes to the rallying and rapprochement of people with different mentality. Studying the process of globalization, scientists have established a number of positive and negative trends in this phenomenon. 1. One of the most significant changes that have occurred as a result of the integration of countries is the international division of labor. As a result of this, each state received its specialization in the world market. Such conditions contributed to lower production costs and efficient allocation of resources.
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As a result, the standard of living of the population in many countries has become higher. 2. Due to the fact that the economy has acquired global status, the volume and choice of goods in the market has increased. 3. A large number of proposals led the world market to conscious competition. This phenomenon has become an incentive for technical development. Under such conditions, the growth rate of the economy increases significantly. In addition, competition is beneficial to consumers, because thanks to it there is a choice, and prices are reduced. Reducing the cost of manufacturing a particular product was made possible thanks to the location of the enterprise in the country or region where production will be as cheap as possible. Such rationalization contributed to an increase in labor productivity. 4. The process of globalization has led to improved living standards in many fears. Life expectancy has increased, the rate of child and maternal mortality has decreased, and the percentage of literate people has significantly increased. 5. The creation of an international space has led to the formation of conditions for mutually beneficial cooperation and mutual assistance. 6. Thanks to the Internet, mankind has gained access to all the information accumulated by previous generations. This in turn made it possible to make the education process faster and more convenient.
As a result, the development of new technologies began to gain more and more turnover. Every year, the speed of technological progress increases, which will undoubtedly lead to a transition of mankind to a new level in the near future. 7. All technological advances spread across the globe with great speed. This leads to the fact that progress in various states occurs more or less evenly. Almost all countries of the civilized world have identical technological security. It is moreapplies to Western countries. Many developing countries today are far from this level of improvement. However, at present there is a tendency for the transition of third world countries to a more progressive lifestyle. 8. Globalization has led to the creation of a unified cultural space between different states and continents. Thanks to this, people got the opportunity to get to know each other better. And with the development of international tourism, we were able to get acquainted with representatives of other countries personally. 9. The unification of the worldspace has become a solid foundation for solving global problems. For example, such as: environmental pollution, terrorism, hunger, etc. This is due to the common focus of various countries of the world, coordination of actions and allocation of resources.